Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Indonesia Defense Management

Indonesia Defense Management
(Part I)
By David Raja Marpaung S.IP, M.Def

            I will separate the article to be two part. The first part will discuss first three element of defense management that consists of force planning, resource planning, and weapon system planning. In other article, will observe the supporting streams, that consist with logistics, C4SRI (command, control, communication computer, surveillance, reconnaissance, information), and civil emergency.
            Military force in a certain country is built to defend the endurance of the state towards other military threats launched by foreign country. According to Peter Paret, military force is an implemented expression of national power applied through the deployment and employment of armed forces[1]. In order to make sure the development and sustainability of military forces, the government especially ministry of defense needs to make defense planning and management.
            Defense planning and management is a comprehensive endeavor that encompasses six different areas. There are three core areas: force, resource and weapon systems planning; and three supporting streams: logistics, C4SRI (command, control, communication computer, surveillance, reconnaissance, information), and civil emergency.

Force Planning
            Force Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities. Ensuring that a modern military has the appropriate personnel and capabilities is the key goal of military force planning It is primarily the responsibility of the Military Departments and Services and is conducted under the administrative control that runs from the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments and Services.
            Former Indonesia Defense Ministry Juwono Sudarsono Said Force planning deals specifically with providing Indonesia with the forces and capabilities of the tri-services to execute their range of missions, in accordance with the Indonesia doctrine of total defence and security (sishankamrata). It seeks to ensure that Indonesia develop sustainable and interoperable forces, which can function even with limited or scarce budgetary resources[2]. 
            The force planning process is based on three sequential elements: general political guidance, planning targets and defense reviews. Political guidance sets out the overall aims to be met, incorporating President S.B. Yudhoyono’s concept of Minimum Essential Force (MEF) that establishes in military terms the number, scale and nature of operational readiness and force structure that the country as a whole should at a minimum be able to deploy. 
            Planning targets include both a detailed determination of an integrated tri-service force (Tri-Matra Terpadu) requirements and the setting of implementation targets to fulfill those requirements. Defense reviews provide a means to assess the degree to which planning targets are being met. The term ‘force planning’ is often confused with that of ‘defense planning’, which is much broader (includes non-military defense planning), and that of ‘operational planning’, which is conducted for specific, tactical and command-level military operations, including balancing strike force, support and maintenance/repair capabilities. 
            But then several question comes up related with these concept, especially Minimum essential Force (MEF). Ministry of Defence has planned to transform the current defence posture by using conceptual framework of Minimum Essential Forces (MEF). This concept will bridge the transition process prior to the development of new defence posture compatible with the concept of policy and strategy on national defence. Indonesian government introduces the MEF-styled concept in its Mid-Term National Development Plan of the Year of 2004-2009[3].
            The problem is there is no definitely definition about MEF. According to the Ministry of Defense version; the minimum essential force is the minimum of the defense forces are capable of causing prevent impact. And minimum essential force emphasis on capability-based planning. That is, there are a number of capabilities designed capable implemented by these forces. The MEF-styled defense concept is rooted in “capability-base approach”. Thus, the government should combine such approach with “task-oriented approach” to ensure that the TNI always has high-qualified striking force to launch unexpected short-term military operations. The task-oriented approach is a followup towards assertive-approach and territorial control that become the basic concept for military deployment in strategic compartments[4]
.           The Question is how much or how many is the minimum forces to prevent threat?.   With MEF, Indonesia armed forces will be directed to preventing the war but not winning the war.  Compare with US Maritime Strategic “preventing the war as equal as winning the war”.
            It is true that the birth of the concept of minimum essential force could not be separated with economic consideration. But we must realistic with calculation of the amount of force that needed to secure our archipelago. For example, do we have enough maritime force (124 combat ships, and 74 airplane ) to cover all our territory.

Resources Planning
            Resources Planning can be define as detail summary of all types of resources (equipment, human, finance, time, etc) that required to complete a specific task such as military transformation, defense development, and etc. Reasonable framework to assess the effectiveness of the state to build its defense force must be correlated to the capacity of the state to convert its national resources to become a coercive tool.
            Juwono Sudarsono  Said National resources comprise human resources, natural resources and man-made resources. National resource planning aims to provide the country with the capabilities it needs, but focuses on the elements that are joined in common funding; each service pool resources within a nation-wide total defense framework[5].
            Resource planning is closely linked to operational planning, which aims to ensure that the Indonesian Defense Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI) fulfill its present and minimum operational commitments and face new threats such as terrorism and bio-chemical weapons. There is a distinction between joint funding and common funding: joint funding covers activities, managed by the Ministry of Defense (Dephan) and TNI Headquarters (Mabes TNI), such as integrated acquisitions and procurement of common use items.
            Common funding involves three different budgets: the civil budget, which covers the running costs of Dephan and Mabes TNI; the military budget, which essentially covers the running costs of TNI’s integrated command structure and the nation-wide communication and air defense networks; and the Defense Acquisitions Program that covers nation-wide procurement requirements for communication systems, air defense systems and networks of naval stations and bases, fuel supplies and command structures
            Army’s capability is reinforced by gearing up its central command forces, namely Army’s Strategic Reserves Command (KOSTRAD) and Army’s Special Forces (KOPASSUS), as well as itsterritorial command forces in 12 Regional Military Commands (KODAM)[6].
            The development of posture and structure inside the Navy is projected “to build its capacity to oversee the vast area of Indonesia’s maritime, both on surface and underwater, and to enable it to provide support and compatibility towards the mobility of the army and the air force.” The development and modernizationvof the navy is aimed at fulfilling its requirementvon weaponry systems, including so-called Integrated Fleet Weaponry Systems (SSAT), which consists of Striking Force Units, Patrol Combat Units, and Supporting Combat Units, as well as Marine Armaments.      
            The development of posture and structure inside the air force is built to enable it “to oversee the national aerial space, in particular, and some part of regional aerial space, to improve its capacity above the minimum level in guarding national aerial space, to enable it to utilize the outer space, and to enable it to provide supports in a joint exercise involving the navy and the army[7]. The development and modernization of the air force is aimed at fulfilling its Main Capabilities and Supporting Capabilities, which are comprised of Air Control, Air Strike, Air Transport, Information Utilization, Air Surveillance, Electronic Warfare, Air Refueling, Early Warning and Operation Control Systems, and Special Skills.

Weapon Systems Planning 
            Weapon system can be defines as any integrated system, usually computerized, for the control and operation of weapons of a particular kind. Intercontinental ballistic missiles, long-range bombers, and antiballistic missiles are the weaponry of the strategic weapons system. Guided missiles operating at shorter range, e.g., anti-aircraft or battlefield weapons and air-to-air or air-to-surface attack-type missiles, constitute a tactical weapons system.
            Juwono Sudarsono said weapon systems planning is one of the main constituting elements of Dephan’s defense planning process. It aims to support the country’s political and economic objectives and focuses on the development of inter-service (but not common-funded) programs. It does this by promoting cost-effective acquisition, co-operative development and graduated increased local production of weapons systems . It also encourages interoperability, and technological and industrial co-operation among the three services and related ministries and government agencies.
            Dephan’s mandate is to cooperate closely with the Ministry of State Enterprises (Menneg BUMN) which has legal and financial control over five strategic industries: PT Pindad; PT PAL; PT Dana; PT LEN and PT DI; with the Ministry of Industry and the State Ministry for Science and Technology to prepare a long-term plan for developing defense industries which reduces reliance on foreign suppliers; and with the Ministry of Finance for purposes of fiscal accountability
            PT. PINDAD is an Indonesian government owned manufacturing industry specializing in military and commercial products. Its activities cover design, development, engineering and fabrication as well as maintenance. PT Pindad has produced weaponry exclusively for the Indonesian military (TNI) for years. Their main assault rifle is a FN-FNC rippoff aka. the SS1 (V1-V5). Now they have upgraded their program and developed a new rifle for the army. SS2 is a further derivate of FNC, with detachable carry handle, RAS, and a modular design. The SS2-V1 is basically a FNC lower with a new developed upper and barrel.
            Ammunition Division production facilities is to meet the demand of the government and also product development, production facility is equipped with the establishment of Filling Plant to support the production of mortar shells, bombs, TNT blocks, shaped charges and other. 
            in 2011, warheads and missiles will be developed with a proximity fuse fashion.Proximity fuse causing the missile head would explode at a predetermined distance from the target. Proximity fuse technology uses a combination of one or more sensors include radar, active sonar, infrared, magnetic, electrical images. Not only that, PT Pindad also plans to produce Surface to Surface Missiles in 2012.

            Outstanding design capabilities of PT PAL INDONESIA (Persero) has entered the international market and their quality has been acknowledged the world. Ships produced by PT PAL INDONESIA (Persero) has been sailing the waters around the world. Now, PT PAL Indonesia is also able to overhaul Submarine and combat ships. PT Pal also able to build patrol boat and combat ship such as KRI Banjarmasin and etc.
            PT LEN
 Industri is a key player in Indonesia’s current military electronics applications and development. From field infantry and mobile tank command communications, to advanced surveillance, targeting, and combat management systems.
            PT LEN able to produce transceiver, combat management system, and transporter torpedo target. Now, PT Len Indonesia produce four more radars in the 2010-2014 Strategic Plan program to cover the Indonesian territories.
            Meanwhile, PT. Dirgantara Indonesia designs, develops, and manufactures civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. Its products and services include airplanes and helicopters, defense systems, parts and components, sub assemblies, and assembly tools and equipment; aircraft services, such as maintenance, overhaul, repair, alteration, aircraft operational lease, and aircraft support services; and engineering services, such as EMC testing, communication, electronic, processing system, and information technology solutions.
Besides from domestic military industries, TNI also buy military equipment from abroad. In 2011, Ministry of Defence  of the Republic of Indonesia certainly buy 16 pieces T50-made fighter jet in South Korea (ROK). One squadron of fighter jets it bought for U.S. $ 400million or around Rp 3, 4 trillion. Meanwhile, the Navy will buy yakhnot missile from Rusia. Yakhnot is an anti-speed supersonic missile which has a cruising range of up to 300 kilometers

[1] Peter Paret. Military Power, The Journal of Military History. Vol. 53 No.2 P.240
[2] Juwono Sudarsono. Indeonesia Defense Management and Planning. http://juwonosudarsono.com/wordpress/?p=34
[3] Republic of Indonesia Presidential Regulation No. 7 Year 2005
[4] Guy J Pauker. The Indonesian Doctrine of Terrirorial Warfare and Territorial Management. (Santa Monica, RAND, 1963)
[5] Jowono Sudarsono, Op, Cit
[6] Republic of Indonesia Act No.17 year 2007.
[7] Ibid. 

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